Conceptual Framework

The Framework

The UMBC Secondary Mathematics Education program recognizes that teacher preparation is initial professional development (PD) and uses the Professional Development: Research, IMplementation, Evaluation (PrimeD) framework to structure activities in the program. The PrimeD framework was developed through a series of research projects1-8.

PrimeD is organized into four cyclic, interactive phases: Design and Development, Implementation, Evaluation, and Research.

PrimeD Framework Full Model


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  1. Saderholm, J. C., Ronau, R. N., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., Rakes, C. & Bush, S. B. (2018). How to promote effective professional development in your district.  American School Board Journal, August 2018.
  2. Bush, S. B., Cook, K. L., Ronau, R. N., Rakes, C. R., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., & Saderholm, J. (2018). A highly structured collaborative STEAM program: Enacting a professional development framework. Journal of Research in STEM Education. 2(2), 106-125.
  3. Rakes, C. R., Bush, S. B., Mohr-Schroeder, M. J., Ronau, R. N., & Saderholm, J. (2017). Making teacher PD effective using the PrimeD framework. New England Mathematics Journal, XLX(1), 52-62.
  4. Saderholm, J., Ronau, R. N., Rakes, C. R., Bush, S. B., & Mohr-Schroeder, M. (2017). The critical role of a well-articulated, coherent design in professional development: An evaluation of a state-wide two-week program for mathematics and science teachers. Professional Development in Education, 43(5), 789 – 818. DOI: 10.1080/19415257.2016.1251485 Available from:
  5. Driskell, S. O., Bush, S. B., Ronau, R. N., Niess, M. L., Rakes, C. R., & Pugalee, D. (2016). Mathematics education technology professional development: Changes over several decades. In M. L. Niess, S. O. Driskell, & K. F. Hollebrands (Eds.), Handbook of research on transforming mathematics teacher education in the digital age. pp. 107-136. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
  6. Rakes, C. R., Kirvan, R., & Witkowski, A. (2018, April). Co-teaching and the PrimeD framework: Radicals and rational exponents. Research report presented at the annual research meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Washington, DC.
  7. Rakes, C. R., Ronau, R. N., Bush, S. B., & Mohr-Schroeder, M. (2018, February). Using the PrimeD framework to understand, guide, and assess secondary mathematics teacher preparation. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Association of Mathematics Teacher Educators, Houston, TX.
  8. Rakes, C. R. (2017, September). Using the PrimeD framework to understand, guide, and assess secondary mathematics teacher preparation. Poster presented at the Provost’s Teaching and Learning Symposium at the University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD.